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Rugby liga - simply matchlessLuxemburg wird nach dem souveränen Sieg über Rottweil nun gegen die Münchner um den direkten Wiederaufstieg spielen. Geschrieben von TotalRugby Team. Geschrieben von TotalRugby Team. Mannschaft des Rugby Clubs Leipzig. Wir blicken auf die vier Spiele an diesem Wochenende. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Weiter lesen Kommentare 0.
The championship play-offs after the second stage will be reduced from sixteen to twelve clubs with the top two teams in each group advancing directly to the quarter finals while the remaining eight will play a wild card round to determine the other four quarter finalists.
At the annual general meeting of the DRV in July it was decided to return to a sixteen club format with two regional divisions of eight.
The last placed in each division would be relegated while the seventh placed teams would have to play-off against the third and fourth best team of the 2.
The German rugby champions are determined by a final except in , currently contested by the two top teams of the Bundesliga:. Archived from the original on Since , the following clubs have played in the league.
From to , the league consisted of two regional divisions of six teams each. After an autumn A round, the top three from each group would reach the championship finals round in spring S.
The bottom three, together with the top three from each of the two 2nd Bundesligas would play a promotion round in spring with the top three in each group playing in the Bundesliga the following autumn.
In and from to , the league has been played in a single-division format. From —13 to —15 it had been divided into a first I and second round II , followed by play-offs:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the top level of rugby union in Germany. For the top level of rugby union in Austria, see 1.
German rugby union championship. Frauenbundesliga in German , accessed: Saison - Spielmodus erneut reformiert in German totalrugby.
Rugby Bundesliga in German Results of the —99 season, accessed: Rugby Bundesliga in German Results of the — season, accessed: Rugby-Bundesliga , —18 clubs.
Rugby-Bundesliga German rugby union championship German rugby union cup. Top-level rugby union club competitions. Rugby union in Germany.
Germany 7s U U U Championship Sevens championship Cup League cup. East German championship East German cup. Germany results East Germany results Players Clubs.
Retrieved from " https: Rugby union leagues in Germany Rugby-Bundesliga National rugby union premier leagues establishments in West Germany Sports leagues established in Rugby union leagues in Europe.
Articles with German-language external links Webarchive template wayback links Webarchive template webcite links. Views Read Edit View history.
FC St Pauli Rugby. Berliner SV 92 Rugby. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market.
In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an extremely competitive sporting market.
In two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries , goals also known as conversions and field goals also known as drop goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play.
A goal is worth two points and may be gained from a conversion or a penalty. A field goal, or drop goal, is only worth one point and is gained by dropping and then kicking the ball on the half volley between the uprights in open play.
Field position is crucial in rugby league,  achieved by running with or kicking the ball. Passing in rugby league may only be in a backward or sideways direction.
Teammates, therefore, have to remain on-side by not moving ahead of the player with the ball. However the ball may be kicked ahead for teammates, but again, if they are in front of the kicker when the ball is kicked, they are deemed off-side.
Tackling is a key component of rugby league play. Only the player holding the ball may be tackled. A tackle is complete, for example, when the player is held by one or more opposing players in such a manner that he can make no further progress and cannot part with the ball, or when the player is held by one or more opposing players and the ball or the hand or arm holding the ball comes into contact with the ground.
Ball control is also important in rugby league, as a fumble of the ball on the ground forces a handover, unless the ball is fumbled backwards.
The ball can also be turned over by going over the sideline. Each position has a designated number to identify himself from other players. These numbers help to identify which position a person is playing.
The system of numbering players is different depending on which country the match is played in. In Australia and New Zealand, each player is usually given a number corresponding to their playing position on the field.
However, since European teams have been able to grant players specific squad numbers, which they keep without regard to the position they play, similarly to association football.
Substitutes generally referred to as "the bench" are allowed in the sport, and are typically used when a player gets tired or injured , although they can also be used tactically.
Each team is currently allowed four substitutes, and in Australia and New Zealand, these players occupy shirt numbers 14 to Generally, twelve interchanges are allowed in any game from each team, although in the National Rugby League, this was reduced to ten prior to the season  and further reduced to eight prior to the season.
If a team has to interchange a player due to the blood bin rule or due to injury, and this was the result of misconduct from the opposing team, the compromised team does not have to use one of its allocated interchanges to take the player in question off the field.
The backs are generally smaller, faster and more agile than the forwards. They are often the most creative and evasive players on the field, relying on running, kicking and handling skills, as well as tactics and set plays, to break the defensive line, instead of brute force.
These two positions are commonly called the "halves". Forward positions are traditionally assigned as follows:. Rugby league is played in over 70 nations throughout the world, Australia, Canada, England, France, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Wales have teams that play at a professional level while the rest are completely amateur, 36 are ranked by the RLIF and a further 32 are officially recognized and unranked.
The Rugby League World Cup is the highest form of representative rugby league and currently features 14 teams. Rugby league is the dominant winter sport in the eastern Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland.
In Australia, and indeed the rest of the region, the annual State of Origin series ranks among the most popular sporting events.
In England, rugby league has traditionally been associated with the northern counties of Yorkshire , Lancashire and Cumbria where the game originated, especially in towns along the M62 corridor.
Both teams will play in the Rugby League Championship in Super League average attendances are in the 8 to 9, range.
The average Super League match attendance in was 8, The success of the Dragons in Super League has initiated a renaissance in French rugby league, with new-found enthusiasm for the sport in the south of the country where most of the Elite One Championship teams are based.
In other parts of Europe, the game is played at semi-professional and amateur level. The Wolfpack won the Kingstone Press League 1 in their inaugural season and earned promotion to the Rugby League Championship.
The Wolfpack play their home games at Lamport Stadium in Toronto. The Papua New Guinea National Rugby League operates as a semi-professional competition as does the USA Rugby League in the United States runs semi-professional clubs to some extent in providing supported accommodation for foreign players.
In other countries, the game is played at an amateur level. Figure shown is the total attendance which is officially counted for both games.
Unofficial estimates put the attendance as high as ,, Bradford Police confirming , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rugby league An attacking player attempts to evade two defenders.
History of rugby league. Rugby league gameplay and Laws of rugby league. Comparison of rugby league and rugby union. List of rugby league competitions.
Laws of the game of rugby league football. Australian Rugby Football League. Encyclopaedia of Rugby League Football.
The History of Rugby League Football. Sports around the World. Paul Downward and Ian Jackson Common Origins, Common Future? Rugby Football League Rugby League European Federation.
Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 28 July Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 1 January National Museum of Australia.
Archived from the original PDF on 1 January When rugby league cast itself free of an arrogant rugby union years ago, it did so with a sense of re-invention.
Rugby league gameplay and Laws of rugby league. Comparison of rugby league and rugby union. List of rugby league competitions. Laws of the game of rugby league football.
Australian Rugby Football League. Encyclopaedia of Rugby League Football. The History of Rugby League Football.
Sports around the World. Paul Downward and Ian Jackson Common Origins, Common Future? Rugby Football League Rugby League European Federation. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 28 July Government of Western Australia.
Archived from the original on 1 January National Museum of Australia. Archived from the original PDF on 1 January When rugby league cast itself free of an arrogant rugby union years ago, it did so with a sense of re-invention.
It was not just about creating better conditions for the players but about striving to produce a better game; a less complicated brand that would appeal to the masses.
Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 3 July But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea - the only country to have rugby league as its national sport - were to qualify for the last four.
Australian Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original PDF on 23 May Retrieved 11 August How has the sport become so popular in Lebanon?
D, Victoria Williams 28 April From Buzkashi to Zorbing: From Buzkashi to Zorbing". Archived from the original PDF on Matters of the heart: The business of English rugby league.
These two changes completed the break from the playing rules of rugby union and marked the birth of rugby league as a distinct sport with its own unique rules".
From the great divide to the Super era". Retrieved 25 September Rugby League in Twentieth Century Britain 1 ed.
Archived from the original on 8 April Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 7 April Grand Final by the numbers".
Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 21 September Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 18 June Asia Pacific Rugby League Confederation.
Retrieved 20 August Journal of Sport and Social Issues. Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 February Archived from the original on 18 July The final hardly anyone seems to be talking about".
Retrieved 18 July Meet the first transatlantic rugby league team". Retrieved 2 March Rugby League International Federation.
Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport. American football eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair Canadian football Indoor American football Arena football.
Beach Rugby league masters mod nines sevens tag wheelchair Rugby union American flag mini sevens snow tag touch tens Touch Wheelchair.
Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. Different forms of football have existed for centuries. For more on the development of football sports, see football.
In Britain , football games may have been played as early as the time of Roman occupation in the 1st century bce. During the 14th and 15th centuries ce , Shrove Tuesday football matches became annual traditions in local communities , and many of these games continued well into the 19th century.
These localized versions of folk football a violent sport distinctive for its large teams and lack of rules gradually found favour within the English public independent schools, where they were modified and adapted into one of two forms: Game playing, particularly football, was encouraged at Rugby School by influential headmaster Thomas Arnold —42 , and many boys educated at this time were instrumental in the expansion of the game.
Rugby football soon became one of the most significant sports in the promotion of English and, later, British imperial manliness.
The cult of manliness that resulted centred on the public schools and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, where boys were sent to learn how to become young gentlemen.
Graduates of these public schools and of Oxford and Cambridge formed the first football clubs, which led to the institutionalization of rugby.
Once they had left school, many young men wanted to continue playing the game of their youth, and the early annual matches between alumni and current senior students were not enough to satisfy these players.
Football clubs were formed in the midth century, with one of the very first rugby clubs appearing at Blackheath in Rugby enthusiasm also spread rapidly to Ireland and Scotland, with a club founded at the University of Dublin in and the formation by the Old Boys of Edinburgh of the Edinburgh Academicals Rugby Football Club in In the tradition of club matches began in England with Blackheath playing Richmond.
Representatives of several leading football clubs met in to try to devise a common set of rules for football. Ultimately, rugby was left outside the FA.
Despite the initial reluctance to abandon hacking, rugby clubs began to abolish the practice during the late s.
Blackheath banned it in , and Richmond supported a similar prohibition in Thus, in members of leading rugby clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union RFU , which became the governing body for the sport.
As a result of its continued adherence to the practice, Rugby School did not join the RFU until Rugby rapidly spread from its elitist origins in England, Scotland, and Ireland to middle- and working-class men in the north of England and in Wales and to the British colonies in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.
It also spread to North America , where it was transformed into a new style of football. Unlike association football soccer , which embraced player payments and league play in the s, the RFU staunchly resisted professionalism, cup competitions, and leagues, though international rugby between England and Scotland began immediately.
As soon as the six Scottish clubs heard of the formation of the RFU, they issued a challenge to it for a match to be held in Scotland on March 27, The match was played in front of 4, spectators, with each side scoring a try, though only Scotland could convert the try with a goal see below Play of the game.
Ireland began playing England in and Scotland in In the north of England, rugby was organized somewhat differently from in the south.
Teams became the focus of civic pride, and league and cup competitions quickly arose in Yorkshire. The game spread throughout Yorkshire to Cumbria and parts of Lancashire, and many working-class men were playing by the mids.
Matters came to a head at an general meeting of the RFU, where the legalization of broken time payments was soundly defeated by southern clubs, which controlled a majority of the votes.
The majority of northern clubs joined the Northern Union, but it failed in efforts to expand its influence farther afield within Britain. Many early players had some experience of the game in the north of England and took their interest with them to Wales.
By the early s rugby had become a vital part of working-class culture in south Wales, which distinguished the game there from its upper-class association in other parts of the British Isles.
Wales had high levels of immigration in the late 19th century, and rugby emerged at this time as a focal point of a new modern Welsh nationalism.
Wales won its first title in Unlike England, a more competitive system arose in Wales, with a South Wales Challenge Cup being contested between and and an unofficial league system appearing by the s.
As the only team to defeat the powerful New Zealand team on its first tour of the British Isles, in , Wales cemented its place as a dominant rugby power.
Rugby remained central to modern Welsh identity, particularly in the period between the mids and the early s, when players such as Gareth Edwards , Barry John, Phil Bennett, Gerald Davies, J.
Williams, and others kept Wales at the top of Northern Hemisphere rugby. During the s many coal mines were closed, which led to the deterioration of mining valley communities that had been the cradle of Welsh rugby for a century.
Since that time Wales has struggled to regain its position as a leading rugby nation. Rugby union football spread more slowly outside the British Empire , though it was played in France as early as There were 20 or more French clubs by , mostly in and around Paris.
Soon the game diffused to southwestern cities such as Bordeaux, Lyon, and Perpignon, where it became the most popular team sport. French attitudes toward professionalism were much more relaxed than in the British Isles, which led the Home Nations unions to sever relations with France in , though they were restored in Like rugby union, the league game in France is largely confined to the southern part of the country.
During World War II , rugby league play was outlawed in France by the Vichy government, but the sport made a comeback in the postwar era.
In the s rugby also gained a foothold in Italy, particularly in the northwestern part of the country. The Italian Rugby Federation was founded in In the s clubs supported by large companies began to organize payment of players in their club competition, and leading international players such as Naas Botha of South Africa, David Campese of Australia, and John Kirwin of New Zealand played rugby union in Italy.
Italian rugby advanced significantly by the s, and in Italy joined the Five Nations competition, which was then renamed Six Nations. Rugby rules appeared in North America before the s and were used in a famous game between McGill University of Montreal and Harvard University of Cambridge , Massachusetts, in Rugby rules were soon modified in the United States and later in Canada, however, to create the distinct codes of gridiron football played in North America.
Although gridiron football had largely supplanted both association football and rugby in the United States by late in the 19th century, rugby enjoyed a revival from on the Pacific Coast after gridiron football was banned there in the aftermath of a public furor over violence and player deaths and injuries.
Rugby remained popular there after the gridiron sport was restored to its preeminent position. West Coast players largely made up the national rugby teams that won at the and Olympic Games , after which rugby was dropped as an Olympic sport.
Rugby also retained a foothold in British Columbia in Canada. Into the 21st century a large proportion of players on the U. It was in the Southern Hemisphere that rugby assumed new levels of cultural meaning and innovation.
In New Zealand and South Africa, the sport became an integral part of national identity and at times a flash point for social and political issues.
In Australia the game was closely associated with the eastern coastal region. Only five clubs played in Sydney at that time, but by , 79 clubs existed, with a senior and four junior competitions.
By the s matches between teams representing New South Wales and New Zealand began, as rugby in Australia remained largely confined to the big east coast cities of Sydney and Brisbane.
The national Australian Rugby Union was not formed until In other parts of Australia, Australian rules football had already established itself as the dominant sport.
The issue of payment to players appeared in Australia by the early s, centring in particular on compensation for injured footballers.
At the same time, a professional team of New Zealand rugby players, known as the All Golds, prepared to travel to England to play against Northern Union clubs.
In a rugby league competition began in Sydney with working-class clubs leaving rugby union to play by the new rules. The first Australian rugby league players toured Britain in —09, followed by another tour of Britain in —12, thus establishing international links between Northern and Southern Hemisphere breakaway groups.
The main centres of rugby league in Australia are Sydney and Brisbane, though it is widely played in cities and towns throughout the country and has a larger following than has rugby union.
In New Zealand the first rugby match was played at Nelson in However, rugby spread slowly owing to problems of distance and sparse population, and while regional unions appeared throughout the country by the mids, a national union, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union NZRFU , was not founded until A team made up mostly of Maori players toured Britain, winning 49 of its 74 matches, including many matches against clubs in the north of England that largely consisted of working-class players and that had become the best club teams in the country.